Injectable aqueous medication products that have been terminally sterilized (by autoclave) and packaged in single-dose containers typically have a capacity of 100 ml or more and are known as large volume parenteral (LVPs) (usually up to 1 liter).

While the active medicinal ingredients in large volume parenterals can vary, water is almost usually the main component. Salts, albumin, dextran, and amino acids in variable concentrations are typical examples.

Dextrose, which ranges from 5 to 50 percent, is another. Thousands of liters or more are typically the size of production batch sizes.

Different ways to filter for LVPs

For different materials of the LVPs, we need to choose different methods and filter products to treat them. There are many instances in which suitable liquid filters are used in the production of LVPs.

They help prepare pharmaceutical-grade fluids for cleaning and product makeup, as well as for the last filtration to reduce particle and bioburden just before filling and terminal sterilizing.

For example, pre-filtration of salt solutions is used to reduce the particles in the solution. Pre-filtration of glucose solutions is usually used to remove hard particles from the solution prior to the 0.22μm final decontamination filtration, and using 0.45μm filters to reduce bioburden is also an option.

Different ways to filter for LVPs

Our filtration goal

  • Pre-filtration

Pre-filtration works to remove debris and gums in order to extend the life of downstream decontamination filters

  • Final filtration

Before final sterilization, except for low bioburden (0.45μm)
Decontamination before final sterilization (0.22μm)

Requirements from application

  • The filtration for LVPs must be able to provide a high flow rate, high accuracy, and constant filling.
  • The investment costs for the filter of LVPs should be reasonable
  • The filling process of LVPsis usually carried out under high differential pressure and high flow rate, so the filter is required to have good mechanical strength, be reliable and sturdy
  • Both pre-filtration filter and sterilization filter are able to withstand repeatedly steam sterilization or hot water sterilization.

Recommended Filter

Step of filtration Recommended filter
Pre-filtration PP pleated filter cartridge
Air filtration Hydrophobic PTFE filter cartridge
Sterile filtration PES membrane pleated filter cartridge
Large volume parenteral flow chart


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